SQ3R方法

STEAM 2021-02-28 686 次浏览 0 条评论 次点赞

SQ3R方法是一种提升研习能力的方法,为美国俄亥俄州州立大学心理学教授弗朗西斯•罗宾逊(Francis P. Robinson)所设计的一套有效读书方法,于1946年在他的著作Effective Study有所提及,主要用于精读课文。

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“SQ3R”来自以下五个英语词语的字首,即:概览(Survey)、提问(Question)、精读(Read)、背诵(Recite)、复习(Review)。该方法为大学生提供了一种更有效、更主动的阅读教科书材料的方法。

(一)Survey(概览,or Skim/略读)

主要是掌握文章的结构以及作者安排文章结构的逻辑,俾便对全文有初步的了解。浏览的内容包括(1)标题(title):了解书籍、书籍专章或期刊论文聚焦的主轴;(2)前言(introduction)及结语摘要(summary):了解作者撰文的目的及要点;(3)各章或各论文的各层次粗黑体字的标头(heading & subheading):了解作者全文逻辑结构的安排;(4)图表(graphics):一张图表胜过千言万语,了解全文可能的重点。

(二)Question(提问)

主要是提出疑问,作为下一阶段阅读的指引。如果是一本好书,标头常会以疑问句(Wh- questions,例如Why? What? How?)呈现;如果标头不是疑问句,最简单的方法就是从标头猜想作者想要讨论哪些问题,读者自行将标头改为疑问句,写在书本空白处。

(三)Read(精读)

使用对“ S”和“ Q”所做的背景工作以开始积极阅读,从阅读文章中找出答案,并且将答案简要用自己的话写下来。有了问题的导引,阅读会比较有方向感,也较能展现读者的主体性,有助于理解与记忆。原则上,一个段落(section)大概列出一个问题就足够,如有必要,可增列一、两个问题。一篇好的论文或一本好书通常会在主要观点之后提出例证或细节,加以说明,帮助读者理解。读者需分清楚主要观点与细节,不要期待能够记下所有的细节。如果看完文章后,发现不能回答先前所提的问题,表示先前读者猜想的问题非作者的想法,就需修改问题以配合文章内容。

(四)Recite(背诵)

读完每个段落后,看着所拟的问题,试着将每一段的重点铭记在心。如果忘记答案,再回头重读一遍与问题有关的答案。

(五)Review(复习,评论)

读完之后,将书本阖上,回想文章的架构、提出的问题,看看能不能答出答案。如果答不出来,则回到背诵阶段;如果答得出来,则继续后续的阅读。

SQ3R随后开发的类似方法包括PQRST和KWL表。

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SQ3R & CNT Methods

再介绍一种学习姿势——SQ3R & CNT Methods,就是将SQ3R方法和CNT方法相结合。

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CNT方法指康奈尔笔记系统(CNTS),是由康奈尔大学教授沃尔特·帕克(Walter Pauk)在2007年的40年前开发设计的,作为一种在记录有组织且有用的笔记的方法,帮助学生“更好地组织笔记” 。

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CNTS的基础是将论文分为三个部分:C部分是大部分内容所在的地方,A部分是要提问的地方,B部分是从A和C部分总结内容的地方。

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康奈尔大学在线学习策略中心提供Canvas笔记模块,该模块将交互式地指导您使用Cornell Notes的方法。

在一份在线文档引用来源)中,详细介绍了The Cornell Note Taking System(CNTS)的内容:

The “Record” section was used to record as many facts as a person can write within a six inch column. The notes in this section are not expected to be concise, nor are the notes to be grammatically correct. It is important to short-note within the area provided. After the presentation of information, the student reviews the notes and fills in any blanks, or corrects any confusing areas.

Within the “Reduce” step, the student wrote in key words, phrases or questions that will serve as cues for the notes taken in class. These cues are written using words that will benefit the individual when reviewing the notes. In addition, questions were entered in the left hand column that helped clarify ideas.

The “Recite” step was one of the most powerful processes of the CNTS. At this step, the student stated the facts and ideas that are trying to be learned out loud. This step was different from the usual study style where notes were re-read because the student spoke the ideas and information outloud rather than relying solely on reading. The purpose of stating ideas outloud was to challenge the individual to think about what the information truly meant. The recite step required that the data in the right hand column be covered and the cue words and terms listed in the left hand column be used to practice reciting the expanded details relating to those words. Should the individual not be able to remember specifics as related to the cue word, uncovering the data in the right hand column allowed the individual to easily retrieve that information.

The “Reflect” or reflection step was where the student thought about the information learned. Learning was reinforced for the individual by relating facts and ideas to other ideas. During this step, questions were asked such as , “How do these facts and ideas fit into what I already know? How can I apply them? How is knowing this important?”(McDowell, 2006). Information and notes presented became reality for the student in that, at this point, it was recognized how information learned was beneficial to them.

The “Review” step was used to help prevent forgetting information learned. The student used the notes that have been taken and reviewed those frequently. It was recommended that the notes be reviewed nightly. It was important that the student reviewed the notes, not re-read them. In this instance, reviewing meant to look over important details and the summary; re-reading meant to re-read the entire set of notes taken. This step helped with the retention of information presented for a longer period of time.

The final step in the CNTS was “Recapitulate”. The recapitulate section was found at the bottom of the note page and summarized the notes taken as well as integrated the information written. The summarization of information was intended to be a summary of key points and ideas written by the individual using language that was easily understood. The summarizations were not notes that were re-written verbatim. This step occurred after the lecture and other steps had been concluded (McDowell, 2006, Pauk, 1997).

SOAR

尽管研究人员长期以来一直在研究改善学习习惯和提高成绩的方法,但很少有研究将学习策略系统相互比较。这项研究直接比较了SQ3R和SOAR,以确定哪种方法最有效。结果证实,使用SOAR系统的学生表现优于使用SQ3R系统的学生,并且学习的人际关系多20%,事实多14%,概念多13%。

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SOAR是内布拉斯加大学林肯分校(University of Nebraska–Lincoln)教育与人文学院教育心理学教授肯内特·A·基瓦拉(KENNETH A.KIEWRA)博士开发的一种教学方法。它是首字母缩写词,代表四个组成部分:选择,组织,关联和监管(Select, Organize, Associate, and Regulate)。

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要学习,学生必须选择重要的想法(通常通过记笔记),组织它们(通常使用图表和图表之类的图形组织器),将它们相互关联(彼此和以前获得的知识)以及规范学习(通常通过实践测试) 。

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SOAR的项目链接及《The SOAR Method》这篇文章对SOAR方法都有示例说明。

参考资源:

https://ctld.ntu.edu.tw/fd/teaching_resource/page1-1_detail.php?bgid=2&gid=18&nid=311
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SQ3R
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0dhcSP_Myjg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KWL_table
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Study_skills


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